The Department of
Agriculture is the principal agency of the Philippine Government
responsible for the promotion of agricultural development growth
and development in the rural area
In pursuit of this, it provides the policy framework, helps direct
public investment, and in partnership with local government units
(LGUs),provides the support necessary to make agriculture and
agri-based enterprises profitable and to help spread the benefits
of development to the poor, particularly those in the rural area
smallholder agriculture and fisheries sector and a diversified
rural economy that is dynamic, technologically advanced and internationally
competitive. Its transformation is guided by the sound practices
of resources sustainability, the principles of social justice,
and a strong private sector participation.
empower the small farming and fishing communities and the private
sector to produce enough, accessible and affordable food for
every Filipino and a decent income for all.
Traces of Modern Philippine
agriculture became most visible to the outside World at the height
of the Spanish regime when industries were encouraged and develop
and supplied the major needs of the colonizer Spain and the other
European customers for tobacco, sugar and abaca.
At the proclamation
of Philippine Independence on June 12, 1898, which gave birth
to the first Philippine Republic under the stewardship of President
Emilio Aguinaldo, several offices and agencies were established.
The then Department of Agriculture and manufacturing was created
through a presidential proclamation on June 23, 1898.
By 1901, a policy
of diversification was adopted under American Sovereignty, which
gave emphasis to the development of other agricultural products,
like rice and other basic commodities, and also fishing, forestry
and mining. The insular bureau of Agriculture was then created
under the department of interior through Act 271.
Eventually, the Bureau
of Agriculture grew rapidly until it was abolished by the enactment
of act no.2666 on November 18, 1916, which was implemented on
January 1, 1917.
By virtue of this
Act entitled "An Act to re-organize the Executive Department
of the Government of the Philippine Islands" The Department
of Agriculture and Natural Resources took over the functions
and activities of the department and interior, namely: Direct
Executive, control, direction, and supervision of the bureau
of Agriculture, Bureau of Forestry, Bureau of Lands, Bureau of
Science, and Weather Bureau and all matters concerning hunting,
fisheries, sponge and other sea products and such others as may
be here after assigned to it by law.
Until 1927, covering
the administrations of Secretaries Galicano Apacible (1917-1921),
Rafael Corpuz (1921-1923), and Silvestre Apostol (1923-1928)
at DANR held the same function and activities embodies and the
During the administration
of Secretary Rafael Alunan, Sr. (1928-1932), significant changes
took place both in the name and composition of the DANR. By virtue
of another Reorganization Act in 1932, the DANR became the Department
of Agriculture and Commerce. The Bureau of Commerce, which used
to be under the Department of Commerce and Communication, was
placed under the reorganized Department. The Bureau of Agriculture
was split into the Bureau of Plant Industry and Bureau of Animal
The following year,
by virtue of the same Reorganization Act, secretary Vicente Singson
Encarnacion (1933-1934) organized the offices of Accounts and
Property statistics and publication, Fish and game Administrator,
Mineral Resources, Fiber Inspection services, Industrial Engineering,
Home Economics and Scientific Library.
When Secretary Eulogio
Rodriguez (1934-1938) took over, the division of mineral resources,
Division of Industrial Engineering, and scientific Library Division
were placed under the bureau of Science. It was also Rodriguez's
administration that the division of mineral Resources was converted
intio the Bureau of mines by virtue of common wealth Act 136.
In 1938 until the
outbreak of the Pacific war in 1941, significant changes took
place. Secretary Benigno S. Aquino, Sr. split the fish and game
Administration. The Game Administration was transferred to the
bureau of Forestry, while function relating to fishery were transferred
to the Division of Fisheries under the office of the secretary.
The Division of Soil Survey was created under Commonwealth Act
418 under the office of the secretary to undertake soil and agronomic
survey of the Philippines.
Upon the outbreak
of the last war, President Manuel L. Quezon re-appointed Rafael
Alunan, Sr. as Secretary of Agriculture and Commerce up to 1942.
The Department of Agriculture and Commerce was reconstituted
on July 1, 1945 upon the resumption of the commonwealth government.
President Sergio Osmena reappointed Vicente Singson Encarnacion
Garchitorina (1946-1948) was appointed by President Manuel Roxas
to head the Department. In 1947, the Department of Agriculture
and Commerce was renamed Department of Agriculrture and Natural
Resources. The Bureau of Commerce, Bureau of Patients and Weather
Bureau were removed from the DANR.
In September 1948,
President Elpidio Quirino appointed Department Secretary Placido
L. Mapa. Two years later, Vice President Fernando Lopez was appointed
Department Secretary. It was during the Administration of Secretary
Lopez in 1953 that the Bureau of Agricultural Extension was established.
His tern also started an era of rural development with the organization
of the 4-H Club and Rural Improvement Club Nationwide.
Vice President Lopez
had to relinquish his post as Agriculture Secretary when he ran
for senator. President Quirino then reappointed Secretary Placido
L. Mapa. The Rice Economic Board was set up, making the rice
industry the first commodity sector to have integrated national
planning. Intensive rehabilitation of the rice, corn, tobaccos,
fiber, sugar, livestock, fishery and mining industries began.
With the election
of President Ramon Magsaysay, Salvador Araneta (1953-1955) became
the secretary. During the Araneta's tenure, the Agricultural
Tenancy Commission, precursor of the Department of Agrarian Reform,
was organized in 1954. The Philippine Tobaccos Administration,
forerunner of the National Tobacco Administration, and Philippine
Coconut Administration (now, Philippine Coconut Authority) were
During the latter
for Magsaysay term, with Secretary Juan G. Rodriguez as department
heads, the Philippines became a member of a United Nations Food
and Agriculture Organization. The national rice, corn production
program was launched. This was coupled with the creation of the
Rice and Corn Coordinating Council Forerunner of the National
Food and Agriculture Council (NFAC).
was succeeded by Secretary Cesar Fortich. It was during his term
when the Abaca Development Board was created on January 23, 1961.
A Program of stocking fingerlings in inland water started. Secretary
Jose Locsin succeeded Secretary Fortich from September to December
1961. Locsin also was concurrently Chairman of the National Economic
In 1962, President
Diosdado Macapagal appointed Benjamin M. Gozon as DANR head.
On June 22, 1963, the Bureau of Agricultural Economic was created.
The national rice and corn administration forerunner of the then
National Grains Authority (NFA) was created. When Secretary Gozon
ran for Governor of Rizal, President Macapagal appointed RCA
Administrator Jose Y. Feliciano a concurrent Secretary of Agriculture.
The DANR launched the agricultural marketing new services providing
farmers and consumer regular prices of selected farm commodities.
With the election
of President Ferdinand E. Marcos, Vice President Lopez for the
second time became the Secretary of Agriculture and Natural Resources,
and also the racezar of the new administration. For the first
time of the Philippines became a rice exporter in 1968.
Under Martial law,
by virtue of PD 461, The DANR was recognized in May 1974 into
two departments, namely; The Department of Agriculture and The
Department of Natural Resources. On June 22, 1978, by virtue
of P.D. 1397, all departments were changed to ministries. At
the helm of the Ministry of Agriculture was Minister Arturo R.
Tanco, Jr. (1974-1984) who launched the innovative Masagana 99
rice production program which revolutionized the rice industry
and made the Philippine a rice exporter and self-sufficient in
white corn. By virtue of PD 461, in June 1978, MA established
12 Regional offices each headed by a Regional Director.
In May 1980, under
EO 595, The Bureau of Cooperatives Development was transferred
to the Ministry of Agriculture. On June 30, 1984, under EO 967
the Ministry of Agriculture was renamed Ministry of Agriculture
and Food. The Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources was transferred
from the Ministry of Natural Resources, converted into a staff
bureau and placed under the supervision and control of MAF.
The stewardship of
MAF was given to assemblyman Salvador H. Escudero III, former
Director of the Bureau of Animal industry and MAF deputy Minister,
after the May 1984 elections. The Intensive Rice Production Program
(IRPP) and an import-substitution program were launched. The
animal dispersal program was also intensified especially the
Bakahang Barangay and Pagbababuyan.
On February 28, 1986
as the result of the EDSA People Power Revolution, the reigns
of power and authority were transferred from Minister Escudero
to Ramon V. Mitra, who was appointed by President Corazon C.
Aquino immediately upon her assumption into office. Guided by
the principle that agriculture is business, the DA implemented
policy and institutional reforms that feed the Agriculture Market,
enabling farmers to enjoy higher taxes. Reforming agricultural
credit system, such as facing out of direct lending scheme, were
MAF Deputy Minister Carlos G. Dominguez was appointed minister
by President Aquino replacing Secretary Mitra who ran for a congressional
seat in the May 11, 1987 polls.
of the Department of Agriculture was contained in EO 116 signed
by President Aquino on January 30.1987. The EO mandated the DA
to promote agricultural development by providing the policy framework;
public investments and support services needed for domestic and
export-oriented business enterprises.
During the term of
Secretary Dominguez, reform were introduced in the rural credit
system to expand the credit facilities of participating lending
financial institutions under a guarantee program., The Comprehensive
Agricultural Loan Fund (CALF) was established to improve the
management of a dwindling fund base composed of sub-funds from
separate agricultural loan programs. The Livelihood Enhancement
for Agricultural Development (LEAD) program was launched in 1988
to speed up Farmer's organizations access to financing, management
expertise, and marketing. Agriculture and Fishery Councils (AFCs)
were set up at the sectorial, regional, provincial and municipal
levels, involving farmers, fishers, traders, rural bankers and
agribusiness entrepreneurs to provide inputs on major programs
and policy decisions and help plan and monitory DA projects.
On January 3,1990,
President Aquino appointed Senen C. Bacani as secretary. During
this period, despite the natural calamities, which struck the
country, the DA implemented the rice action program (RAP) which
led the country to export in 1992. Consequently the Corn Production
Enhancement Program (CPEP) resulted in self-sufficiency in corn,
another major staple crop. The Peasant forum, an aggroupment
of small farmers and fishermen was created. The major thrust
of the Forum was its involvement in the major policy and decision-making,
planning and monitoring and DA projects in the region
With the transition
of power in the presidency in 1992 from President Corazon C.
Aquino to President Fidel V. Ramos. The Philippine agricultural
economy took a new development thrust. The chief executive appointed
as DA Secretary, Roberto S. Sebastian. Under his stewardship,
he introduced the Key Production Approach (KPA) which is based
on the principle of planting right crop, at the right place and
time. This became the basis in the formulation of the Medium
Term Agricultural Development Plan. It consisted of the four
banner programs: Grains Production Enhancement Program (GPEP);
Key Commercial Crops Development Programs (KCCDP); Medium Term
Livestock Development Program (MTLDP); and Medium Term Fisheries
Management and Development Program (MTFMDP). The MTDP laid down
the foundation of the ascension of the Philippine Agriculture
to meet the challenge of competing Globally.
After the term of
Secretary Sebastian, Dr. Salvador H. Escudero III was appointed
for another term as Secretary of Agriculture. Secretary Escudero
focused his attention on addressing the food security concern
with outmost priority. He launched the Gintong Ani Programs to
ensure food Security and help organize subsistence farmers into
functional group or cooperative and transform them into viable
producers and entrepreneurs ready for the global market.
With the election
of President Ejercito Estrada, Dr. William D. Dar was designated
as acting secretary of agriculture on June 30, 1998 He introduced
his administration's ten point agenda and Agriculture and Fisheries.
Among other his priorities include the revitalization of productivity
programs, quick response to calamity/disaster situations, irrigation
and related infrastructure, research and development, extension
and training, and rural finance.
After a year of Estrada
administration, former senate President Edgardo J. Angara was
appointed as secretary of Agriculture. As the principal author
of R.A. 8435 otherwise known as Agriculture and Fisheries Modernization
Act (AFMA) of 1998, he was given the rare opportunity to put
into action the vision of AFMA of transforming the agriculture
landscape as a means of achieving food security and the nation
catapult towards industrialization.
When President Estrada
appointed Sec. Angara as Executive Secretary, DA Usec. Domingo
Panganiban took the helm of DA. This was cut short, however,
with the people power III that brought President Gloria Macapagal
Arroyo to power in March 2001.
Leonardo Q. Montemayor, who represented the Alyansang Bayanihan
na mga Magsasaka, Manggagawang-Bukid at Mangingisda, was appointed
DA Secretary in March 2001 until the present. Immediately, he
outlined his 11-point agenda to accelerated agricultural development
region has eight (8) divisions. Administrative, PMED, Finance,
AEPD, Regulatory, RAEG, RAFID and AMAD
- Assists the
management in planning, directing and supervising administrative
service functions, aside from being in
charge of administrative service functions in the regional office.
AND EVALUATION DIVISION
- Provides the
regional office with efficient and effective services related
to planning, programming and project developments.
with the provincial planning units in the preparation of the
regional plans and programs.
with the Budget section in the preparation of the financial workplan
of the approved agricultural development programs.
- Reviews the
evaluation analysis of agricultural programs in the region.
- Assists management
on budgetary and financial matters.
- Tasks to oversee
the implementation of small livelihood projects on crops to include
fruit trees, plantation crops, high valued crops, vegetable production
and other related activities in the region.
- It is responsible
in the implementation of regulatory services of the Soils Laboratory,
Tissue Culture Laboratory, Plant and commodity Quarantine Service,
Land Conversion Law Enforcement and Regional Seed Quality Control
- It is also responsible
in the implementation of Agribusiness, Marketing and Agricultural
Engineering works i.e. post-harvest and irrigation facilities,
soil and water conservation, to support effectively and efficiently
the Agrikulturang - Pilipino (Agri-Pinoy) for Rice, Corn, Livestock
and High Value Commercial Crops.
- Ensures proper
implementation of laws, rules, regulations, policies related
to livestock activities.
- Proper implementation
of plans, programs, projects and activities of the different
livestock production, research stations and all livestock quarantine
activities in the region.
with LGUs regarding livestock production and research activities
in support to the Medium Term Agricultural Programs.
AGRICULTURE AND FISHERY INFORMATION DIVISION (RAFID)
- Prepares the
advocacy plan for the Department of Agriculture.
- Serves as the
"mouthpiece" or the information arm of the Department.
- Packages mature
technologies in popular forms like leaflets, posters, pamphlets,
radio and video documentaries and plugs for massive dissemination
- Promotes in-house
activities, program and projects.
AND MARKETING ASSISTANCE DIVISION (AMAD)
and coordinates the efforts of the Department of Agriculture
in all matters pertaining to agribusiness dvelopment and marketing
assistance to include collaboration and provision of assistance
to local government inuts, private sectors, farmers and fisherfolks
in marketing and investment ventures.
- Implements the
Barangay Food Terminal (BFT)
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